George Martian (psych eval)

by Christopher Gould





Prosper Central Schools                                                          _X_Initial Evaluation

Prosper Elementary                                                                 __ Triennial Evaluation

Prosper, NY                                                                            __Change of program



Name: George Patrick Martian                           Student Number: 3152982312

Date of Birth: 06/04/72                                      School: Prosper Elementary

Age: 7-3                                                              Grade: 1

Date of Evaluation: 09/24/79                              Examiner: Claudia Strauss, PhD

Date of Report: 09/29/79



George was referred for evaluation based on concerns raised from his first grader teacher, Ms. Irene Barker.  The primary issue being that George has struggled with the first grade curriculum and has had a difficult time following basic directions.  Additionally, George is prone to episodes of stuttering and also appears to have an imaginary friend.



Review of Records

Student Interview

Teacher Interviews

Clobridge-Foster Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (CFIAT)

Briggs Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (BBASC)

Prosper Informal Speech Assessment (PISA)



George was the product of a healthy, uneventful pregnancy and was born on his exact due date.  Interviews conducted with his mother and father reveal that he attained all of his developmental milestones within the typical ranges of expectancy.  By age three, George exhibited characteristics that led his parents to believe he was gifted (see the attached report).  He was referred to Preston Accelerated, a nearby gifted academy, and after thorough examination their suspicions were confirmed.  Reports from Preston indicate that George had a full scale IQ of 120, with a 97% confidence interval.  Educational records reveal that George was accepted into Preston for the following fall term.   Some months prior, George contracted Spinal Meningitis.  In the course of the illness George had to be resituated on two occasions.  It is thought that a delay in oxygen supply negatively impacted his cognitive function.  Though to what extent remains undetermined.  Needless to say, Preston Accelerated was no longer an option.

 Initial reports from kindergarten were positive.  His teacher, Ms. Juanita Vargas, noted that he “was a pleasant and cooperative student who was well-liked by his peers.”  The only concern being that George did not sleep during naptime.  However, as the school year progressed and the academics became more rigorous, George's difficulties began to manifest themselves.  The most notable being:

 An inability/unwillingness to remain within the lines while coloring

An inability/unwillingness to cut in straight lines (supplied with left handed scissors-George is left handed).

Letter reversals

Number reversals

The emergence of a stutter


In addition to the above, George exhibited a propensity to daydream, which negatively impacted his ability to follow even the most basic of directions.  Perhaps most disconcerting was George's apparent interaction with an imaginary friend (usually during naptime).  The increasing difficulties culminated in a series of parent/teacher conferences in which the notion of retention was broached.  After much discussion, George was ultimately not retained and was thus promoted to first grade. 

 The first grade curriculum has been challenging for George.  At times he exhibits a good foundation of basic skills (decoding, sight word recognition, vocabulary) but too often is preoccupied with his own interests.  Generally, this involves the aforementioned tendency to daydream, his imaginary friend or some combination thereof.  In such instances, George can be redirected with verbal prompts, but as an apparent defense mechanism, reverts to thumb sucking.  This habit should be monitored.



George presented himself as a well-mannered youngster with a propensity, perhaps, for smiling too much.  He was appropriately dressed and groomed, and when complimented he replied, “Yes indeed, I am snappy dresser.”  He then went on to discuss the “deterioration” of his “mother's fashion sense” and her “mind-boggling preference for Izod over Polo.”    With rapport thus established, testing commenced. George appeared to put forth his best effort on all tasks given, although at times his attention waned.  Despite this, results are thought to be an accurate representation of his abilities.

 During the examination, George would initially listen to the instructions, but would sometimes try to begin a task before they were read in full.  On other occasions, he would attempt to reply to a question before it was asked.  It should also be noted that George insisted on turning the pages of the test booklet himself as soon as he had answered.  As the test drew on, George would fidget and as the questions grew more challenging and he did not know the answer, he would unknowingly suck his thumb.



Cognitive Testing:

George's cognitive ability is consistent with an individual who is functioning in the low average to average range of intellectual ability, as evidenced by his full scale IQ of 98 (see full report below).  This is in stark contrast from the previous test results (administered by Preston Accelerated- full scale IQ: 120) and would suggest that George has indeed experienced a high degree of cognitive loss. 


Achievement Testing:

George was administered the Clobridge-Foster Individual Achievement Test (CFIAT) in order to estimate his current ability level in Math, Reading and Writing.  While test results are generally a good indicator of future academic success, it should be noted that several factors can influence these results (work ethic, emotional problems, cultural differences and environmental stimuli). George's performance on the CFIAT is as follows:


Full Scale IQ: 98


Subtest                Standard Score            Percentile




Sight Words













Problem Solving






Written Expression



Reading Composite



Math Composite





The Reading Composite measures various aspects of reading including: vocabulary decoding, speed, comprehension as well as the ability to activate background knowledge (schema).  George earned a score of 62, which places him at the 50th percentile.  Generally speaking, George falls in the average range.  Most noteworthy was George's ability to provide definitions of words that are typically unknown to his peer group.  Thus, it is clear that vocabulary is an area of strength.  In addition, George demonstrated good sight word identification and decoding skills, yet his comprehension was in the low average range (40th percentile).  It should be noted that his attention wavered during this part of the test, (in which he appeared to consult with his imaginary friend).  Nonetheless, results should be considered generally representative of his ability.  



The Math Composite measures various aspects of math skills including: problem solving, calculation and reasoning.  George earned a score of 51, which places him at the 40th percentile.  Generally speaking, this puts George in the low average range.  While George exhibited an understanding of how to problem solve, he lacked the ability to properly calculate.  In many instances he would use his fingers to help solve the numeric problems, but rarely arrived at the proper response. Thus, there is a significant discrepancy between George's calculation skills and his numerical problem solving skills: he seems to understand mathematical concepts, he is just lacking the ability to accurately calculate.  Due to George's low composite score, it was necessary to administer supplemental questions (in order to establish a basal).  On this portion of the test, George could identify the name and value of coins, but when asked to compute various denominations, was unable to do so.  Additionally, the supplemental test revealed that George was unable to properly read a clock.


Written Expression:

The written language composite measures various aspects of writing including: spelling, fluency production, as well as quality of expression.  George earned a 69 on the spelling portion, which placed him at the 53rd percentile.  Unfortunately, due to poor handwriting, the remainder of George's sample was unscorable (the words and letters ran together and frequently overlapped).  Although it was evident that George struggled with the mechanical aspect of writing, he did manage to fill up two full pages of the answer booklet.  It should also be noted that the bottom of each page had what appeared to be an attempt at footnotes.  Still, this examiner found it impossible to assess.


As part of a comprehensive evaluation, George's emotional functioning was also assessed.  The results, as measured by the Briggs Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (BBASC) are listed below.


Socio-Emotional and Behavioral Functioning:

Ratings on the BBASC from 09/24/79 are presented in the table below.


Teacher-Ms. Vargas:


Scale                                       Rating

Impulsiveness                          At-risk

Compliance                             Average

Sociability                               Average


Stress                                       At-risk

Depression                              At-risk

Somatization                           Average


Attention Problems                 Significant

Learning Problems                  At-risk


Atypicality                              Average

Withdrawal                             Significant


Avoidance                               Average

Situational Awareness            Average

Leadership                              Average

Self-concept                            At-risk


In terms of socio-emotional functioning, current BBASC results indicate findings of clinical significance in the areas of attention and withdrawal.  In addition, George was found to be at risk in the areas of impulsiveness, stress, depression, learning problems and study skills. 

 When these results were shared with George's parents, additional information came to light.  Firstly, they revealed that George had begun to wet the bed, roughly twice a week for the past month.  Secondly, that he'd recently experienced a series of bad dreams, which their family doctor characterized as night terrors.  Taking all this in consideration it is reasonable to assume that George is experiencing a high degree of stress, likely brought on by external factors (school, the death of his grandfather, perhaps some unknown event).


Speech Evaluation:

Based on concerns raised by his teachers, George was informally evaluated for speech services, specifically in regard to his stutter.  What follows is a summary of that report from district-wide speech pathologist, Christine Bayliss (temporary certification, license pending).


The Prosper Informal Speech Assessment (PISA) evaluates speech production through observations and interviews.  If findings indicate clinically significant expressive problems, additional testing is then administered and an appropriate course of therapy is prescribed.  George was observed on as many as four separate occasions both in the classroom setting as well in less structured environments (recess and lunch).  In small group and in one on one interaction, George exhibits no speech problems at all.  In fact, he generally expresses himself better and more clearly than his peer group.  During “Share Time” in which students speak in front of the class, George experienced high levels of anxiety and time and time again fell into a sustained pattern of stuttering.  He was particularly challenged by the letters “S,” “R,” and “W.”   When he later presented his oral report with his teacher and myself, he spoke flawlessly.



While George may experience mild to moderate episodes of stuttering, his fluency and articulation are sound.  His difficulty lies not with his ability to produce speech, but rather an inherent fear of speaking in front of large groups of people.  With that in mind, George does not qualify for speech services at this time.



George Martian is a 7 year and 3 month old student who has just entered first grade this month.  George was evaluated to determine the appropriateness of his placement as well as to determine if he qualified for additional services.  Previous testing (Preston Accelerated) indicated that George's cognitive abilities were in the superior range.  However, current school achievement, as measured by the CFIAT, indicates that George's overall abilities are in the low average to average range (with a high degree of intersubtest scatter).  The discrepancy in achievement scores is likely due to the associated trauma incurred when George contracted Spinal Meningitis.  The precise degree of which, will likely never be known.  In summary, this examiner concludes that George exhibits evidence of average intellectual potential, with the ability to sometimes achieve consistence with that potential.  Furthermore, the erratic nature of these scores strongly suggests the interference of emotional factors upon learning.



  1. These results should be shared with Mr. and Mrs. Martian, George as well as appropriate service providers of the greater school community.
  2. George should receive preferential seating in all academic settings in order to better keep him on task.
  3. George should receive remediation services in the area of mathematics.  Special emphasis should be placed on learning the math facts.
  4. George should be a part of the Big Buddy Program (flyer enclosed)
  5. George should seek outside counseling services for further evaluation in regards to psychological issues (anxiety, night terrors, imaginary friend, bed wetting).  Please see Dr. Claudia Strauss for a referral.









                                                                  Respectfully submitted,



                                                                                       Claudia Strauss

                                                                                          Claudia Strauss, PHD

                                                                                          School Psychologist